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causes-risk-factors-inflammatory-bowel-disease

IBD Causes & Risk Factors

IBD is typically a disease of young people because it often develops between the ages of 10 and 30; but it can also occur in older adults.

The exact cause of IBD is not known but is related to protective immune cells that are present in the lining of the intestines. This immune system normally turns on and off to fight harmful substances like bacteria and viruses that pass through intestines. In IBD it seems that there is an initial trigger such as an infection, something in the diet or the environment that activates the immune system. However, the difference in those who develop IBD is that the immune system does not turn off once this initial trigger ends. This leads to uncontrolled inflammation and an attack on normal intestinal cells.

Smokers are more likely to develop Crohn's disease than non-smokers. Also, among people with Crohn's disease, smokers tend to have a more aggressive form of disease than non-smokers. The reasons are not clear, but the opposite is true for ulcerative colitis. Smokers are less likely to develop ulcerative colitis and tend to have less severe symptoms than non-smokers.

PN 1002264 Rev A 04/2013


Serious complications may occur in any surgery, including da Vinci® Surgery, up to and including death. Examples of serious or life-threatening complications, which may require prolonged and/or unexpected hospitalization and/or reoperation, include but are not limited to, one or more of the following: injury to tissues/organs, bleeding, infection and internal scarring that can cause long-lasting dysfunction/pain. Risks of surgery also include the potential for equipment failure and/or human error. Individual surgical results may vary.

Risks specific to minimally invasive surgery, including da Vinci Surgery, include but are not limited to, one or more of the following: temporary pain/nerve injury associated with positioning; temporary pain/discomfort from the use of air or gas in the procedure; a longer operation and time under anesthesia and conversion to another surgical technique. If your doctor needs to convert the surgery to another surgical technique, this could result in a longer operative time, additional time under anesthesia, additional or larger incisions and/or increased complications.

Patients who are not candidates for non-robotic minimally invasive surgery are also not candidates for da Vinci® Surgery. Patients should talk to their doctor to decide if da Vinci Surgery is right for them. Patients and doctors should review all available information on non-surgical and surgical options in order to make an informed decision. For Important Safety Information, including surgical risks, indications, and considerations and contraindications for use, please also refer to www.davincisurgery.com/safety and www.intuitivesurgical.com/safety. Unless otherwise noted, all people depicted are models.

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