Process of Kidney Cancer
A kidney tumor is an abnormal growth within the kidney. The terms "mass," "lesion" and "tumor" are often used interchangeably. Tumors may be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common kidney lesion is a fluid-filled area called a cyst . Simple cysts are benign, do not turn into cancer and usually require no follow-up or treatment. Solid kidney tumors can be benign, but are cancerous more than 90 percent of the time.1
Kidney cancer can potentially grow into the renal vein and the vena cava. The renal vein is the kidney's primary draining vein and the vena cava is the vein that takes blood to the heart. The portion of the cancer that extends into these veins is called "tumor thrombus." Imaging studies, particularly an MRI, can help to determine if tumor thrombus is present.
Tumors must stimulate the growth of new blood vessels to provide the tumor with nutrients and oxygen. This process, known as angiogenesis, is needed for a tumor to continue to grow and spread to other areas of the body. Kidney cancers are considered very angiogenic and are very efficient at travelling through the blood vessels in the body. They do this by secreting a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor, or VEGF. VEGF acts on nearby blood vessels stimulating them to sprout new vessels to supply the tumor.
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- "About Kidney Cancer", Kidney Cancer Association, www.kidneycancer.org , URL: http://www.kidneycancer.org/knowledge/learn/about-kidney-cancer
Serious complications may occur in any surgery, including da Vinci® Surgery, up to and including death. Examples of serious or life-threatening complications, which may require prolonged and/or unexpected hospitalization and/or reoperation, include but are not limited to, one or more of the following: injury to tissues/organs, bleeding, infection and internal scarring that can cause long-lasting dysfunction/pain. Risks of surgery also include the potential for equipment failure and/or human error. Individual surgical results may vary.
Risks specific to minimally invasive surgery, including da Vinci Surgery, include but are not limited to, one or more of the following: temporary pain/nerve injury associated with positioning; temporary pain/discomfort from the use of air or gas in the procedure; a longer operation and time under anesthesia and conversion to another surgical technique. If your doctor needs to convert the surgery to another surgical technique, this could result in a longer operative time, additional time under anesthesia, additional or larger incisions and/or increased complications.
Patients who are not candidates for non-robotic minimally invasive surgery are also not candidates for da Vinci® Surgery. Patients should talk to their doctor to decide if da Vinci Surgery is right for them. Patients and doctors should review all available information on non-surgical and surgical options in order to make an informed decision. For Important Safety Information, including surgical risks, indications, and considerations and contraindications for use, please also refer to www.davincisurgery.com/safety and www.intuitivesurgical.com/safety. Unless otherwise noted, all people depicted are models.
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