Rectal Cancer Stages
If the biopsy shows that cancer is present, your doctor will perform tests to find out the extent (stage) of the disease and plan the best treatment. The stage is based on whether the tumor has invaded nearby tissues, whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to what parts of the body.
Sometimes staging is not complete until after surgery to remove the tumor. Doctors describe colorectal cancer by the following stages:
The cancer is found only in the innermost lining of the rectum. Carcinoma in situ is another name for Stage 0 colorectal cancer.
The tumor has grown into the inner wall of the rectum. The tumor has not grown through the wall.
The tumor extends more deeply into or through the wall of the rectum. It may have invaded nearby tissue, but cancer cells have not spread to the lymph nodes.
The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, but not to other parts of the body.
The cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lungs.
This is cancer that has been treated and has returned after a period of time when the cancer could not be detected. The disease may return in the rectum, or in another part of the body.
All surgery presents risk, including da Vinci Surgery. Results, including cosmetic results, may vary. Serious complications may occur in any surgery, up to and including death. Examples of serious and life-threatening complications, which may require hospitalization, include injury to tissues or organs; bleeding; infection, and internal scarring that can cause long-lasting dysfunction or pain. Temporary pain or nerve injury has been linked to the inverted position often used during abdominal and pelvic surgery. Patients should understand that risks of surgery include potential for human error and potential for equipment failure. Risk specific to minimally invasive surgery may include: a longer operative time; the need to convert the procedure to an open approach; or the need for additional or larger incision sites. Converting the procedure to open could mean a longer operative time, long time under anesthesia, and could lead to increased complications. Research suggests that there may be an increased risk of incision-site hernia with single-incision surgery. Patients who bleed easily, have abnormal blood clotting, are pregnant or morbidly obese are typically not candidates for minimally invasive surgery, including da Vinci Surgery. Other surgical approaches are available. Patients should review the risks associated with all surgical approaches. They should talk to their doctors about their surgical experience and to decide if da Vinci is right for them. For more complete information on surgical risks, safety and indications for use, please refer to http://www.davincisurgery.com/da-vinci-surgery/safety-information.php.
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PN 1002268 Rev A 04/2013U 1-11-11